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Deterioration of Rock Materials

General data

Course ID: 1300-WDTP-GES Erasmus code / ISCED: 07.304 / (0532) Earth science
Course title: Deterioration of Rock Materials Name in Polish: Deterioracja materiałów kamiennych
Department: Faculty of Geology
Course groups:
ECTS credit allocation (and other scores): 2.00
Language: Polish
Type of course:

elective courses

Prerequisites (description):

Basic knowledge of geology, including processes of rock formation and diagenesis; recognition of basic rock types.

Basic knowledge of rock chemistry and chemical weathering transformations.

Basic knowledge of conducting studies of measurement error assessment.

Recommended courses: Basic of Metrology, Mechanics of Rock Media

Short description:

The course is focused on processes of intensified deterioration of rock materials in aggressive urban and industrial environments. The following topics will be presented:

- geological conditions of rock susceptibility to deterioration;

- environmental causes of rock material destruction;

- deterioration mechanisms;

- qualitative and quantitative assessment of deterioration rate;

- geomechanic conditions of the rock fracturing process increasing susceptibility to deterioration;

- laboratory methods used in deterioration assessment;

- methods of rock material protection and their effectiveness.

The course includes also laboratory work and field presentation of selected architectural objects with regard to their susceptibility on the effect of deterioration factors and current deterioration symptoms.

Full description:

The lecture presents wide knowledge on the destruction processes in rock materials used in various branches of civil engineering and architecture. Deterioration processes are continuously considered and analyzed in the practical application of rock materials and their protection against the harmful effects of the atmosphere, water solutions and anthropopression factors. This is particularly important in relation to strongly urbanized environments with a high degree of industrialization and highly aggressive impact. Deterioration processes significantly decrease the quality of rock materials, both in terms of aesthetics as well as physical and chemical properties decreasing their resistance. Recognition of these phenomena, capability of predicting the effects depending on the rock type, assessment of the deterioration rate as well as knowledge of protection measures are indispensible elements of practical activity with regard to the protection and renovation of historic stone objects and design of new architectural objects.

The lecture presents a specific approach to geological issues linked with the formation and diagenesis of various rock types with practical application. Therefore, an important topic is the characteristics of geomechanic properties of rock materials, related to resistance properties, susceptibility to fracturing and lithological properties influencing deterioration processes and their dynamics.

The topic will be presented in the form of traditional lectures with presentations, lab classes and workshops allowing direct observation of deterioration effects on architectural stone objects.

A detailed schedule includes:

* geological conditions of rock susceptibility to deterioration, linked with their formation, diagenesis, tectonic and relaxation processes. This topic is strictly linked with the knowledge on the basic geological processes influencing rock properties, thus their resistance to destruction factors (2 h);

* environmental characteristics of the causes of rock material destruction and its mechanisms. This part presents factors causing the destruction of rock materials and influencing the rate of the process (4 h). The following issues are discussed:

- mechanical factors disturbing rock structure;

- atmospheric factors linked with air pollution in an urban and industrial environment, causing chemical transformation of rock forming minerals;

- influence of water and water solutions generating corrosion processes and causing soil crystallization in the pore space of the rock material;

- biological factors linked with activity of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) on external surfaces and within the rock material;

* description of methods of qualitative and quantitative assessment of the deterioration rate and its measurable effects. Methods of field study and lab analysis that allow determining deterioration indicators for various destruction factors are discussed (2 h);

* presentation of geomechanic conditions of rock fracturing processes that induce deterioration. Issues on the resistance of rock materials, their susceptibility to cyclic variables, destructive strain and the course of fracturing processes of the rock framework in various lithological types are presented (4 h);

* visit in lab and presentation of laboratory methods used in the assessment of deterioration processes caused by the most common factors: freeze, soil crystallization, sulphide effects and salt mist. The students prepare samples and assess the deterioration in subsequent measurement cycles (8 h);

* presentation of the methods of rock material protection against the effects of aggressive atmospheric environment, water and its solutions, as well as renovation of damaged stone elements. The effectiveness of the applied methods in relation to different types of rock material, directly linked with geological conditions of its origin is also discussed (4 h).

* workshops presenting selected architectonic objects with regard to their susceptibility to deterioration factors (6 h).

Learning outcomes:

On completion of the course, the student:

- knows the causes of deterioration of rock materials, understands the deterioration process and is capable of predicting its possible results in variable environmental conditions (P2A_W01),

- is able to determine the degree of rock material susceptibility based on its lithogenic properties and other geological conditions assessed with the applied methods (P2A_W02),

- knows and understands the physical, chemical and biological conditions of deterioration processes in rock materials (P2A_W03),

- knows methods used in the study of rock material susceptibility to the effects of harmful environmental factors (P2A_W07),

- is able to diagnose advancement of the deterioration process in variable rock materials with application of basic and specialized research procedures (P2A_U01),

- has the skill to plan relevant procedures of intensified deterioration research in the lab (P2A_U04),

- determines the rate of deterioration and the integrity factor modeled in the lab for various rock materials (P2A_U06),

- points out effective methods of disintegration reduction in aggressive environments and selects the best remediation measures (P2A_U07)

- is able to write a report based on the recognition of actual deterioration phenomena, individual research procedures and analysis of the obtained results (P2A_U09),

- demonstrates knowledge on the negative, proceeding deterioration effects and is aware of the need to submit information on the harmful effect of selected environmental factors (P2A_K01),

- is aware of the negative influence of deterioration on the cultural and historical value of stone monuments and is capable of determining the best remedial measures (P2A_K03),

- is aware of the negative influence of deterioration on the cultural and historical values of stone monuments in urban environments with increased intensity of aggressive factors and is capable of thinking and acting imaginatively (P2A_K08)

Assessment methods and assessment criteria:

The final assessment on the basis of an individual presentation / project and written test.

Permissible triple excused absence from classes.

Practical placement: (in Polish)


Classes in period "Summer semester 2019/20" (past)

Time span: 2020-02-17 - 2020-08-02
Choosen plan division:

see course schedule
Type of class: Placement, 30 hours, 20 places more information
Coordinators: Alicja Bobrowska
Group instructors: Alicja Bobrowska
Students list: (inaccessible to you)
Examination: Course - Grading
Placement - Grading

Classes in period "Winter semester 2020/21" (in progress)

Time span: 2020-10-01 - 2021-01-31
Choosen plan division:

see course schedule
Type of class: Placement, 30 hours, 20 places more information
Coordinators: Alicja Bobrowska
Group instructors: Alicja Bobrowska
Students list: (inaccessible to you)
Examination: Course - Grading
Placement - Grading
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