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General data

Course ID: 1400-111BOT
Erasmus code / ISCED: 13.1 Kod klasyfikacyjny przedmiotu składa się z trzech do pięciu cyfr, przy czym trzy pierwsze oznaczają klasyfikację dziedziny wg. Listy kodów dziedzin obowiązującej w programie Socrates/Erasmus, czwarta (dotąd na ogół 0) – ewentualne uszczegółowienie informacji o dyscyplinie, piąta – stopień zaawansowania przedmiotu ustalony na podstawie roku studiów, dla którego przedmiot jest przeznaczony. / (0511) Biology The ISCED (International Standard Classification of Education) code has been designed by UNESCO.
Course title: Botany
Name in Polish: Botanika
Organizational unit: Faculty of Biology
Course groups: Requisite courses for first-year students of Biology
Requisite subjects for first-year students of Environmental Protection
Course homepage:
ECTS credit allocation (and other scores): 8.00 OR 6.00 (depends on study program) Basic information on ECTS credits allocation principles:
  • the annual hourly workload of the student’s work required to achieve the expected learning outcomes for a given stage is 1500-1800h, corresponding to 60 ECTS;
  • the student’s weekly hourly workload is 45 h;
  • 1 ECTS point corresponds to 25-30 hours of student work needed to achieve the assumed learning outcomes;
  • weekly student workload necessary to achieve the assumed learning outcomes allows to obtain 1.5 ECTS;
  • work required to pass the course, which has been assigned 3 ECTS, constitutes 10% of the semester student load.

view allocation of credits
Language: Polish
Type of course:

elective courses
obligatory courses

Prerequisites (description):

High school biology (extended program)



Short description:

The course presents a variety of organisms traditionally classified as plants (cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae, terrestrial plants, fungi-like protists and fungi sensu stricto).

Lab: morphology and anatomy of various groups presented in taxonomic order.

Lecture: the variety of organisms in terms of evolution, with particular emphasis on evolutionary breakthrough innovations.

Full description:


Algae - a variety of life forms and chemistry (cyanobacteria, golden algae, diatoms, brown algae, dinoflagellates, euglenids, red algae, green algae).

Fungi and fungi-like protists - a variety of forms, reproduction, lifestyle (mycetozoa, oomycetes, fungi sensu stricto); diversity of terrestrial fungi on the example of Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota; adaptation of fungi for parasitism and predation; conidial fungi and lichens.

Bryophytes and ferns - morphology and anatomy of gametophytes and sporophytes; the relationship between the form and the environment, reproductive strategies (liverworts, mosses, clubmosses, spikemosses, quillworts, Psilotopsida, horsetails, ferns).

Gymnosperms - diversity of modern gymnosperms, morphology of sporophyte (Cycadidae, Ginkgoidae, Gnetidae, Pinidae).

Angiosperms - diversity of modern angiosperms (ANITA, Magnoliids, higher dicotyledons, monocotyledonss); flower: morphology and anatomy, evolutionary trends, types of inflorescence; fruit and seed: types of fruit, seed anatomy; morphology and anatomy of root, stem and leaf.


Phylogenetic relationships among groups of organisms traditionally classified as plants: cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae, terrestrial plants, fungi-like protists and fungi sensu stricto. The origin of oxygenic photosynthesis. Endosymbiotic origin of chloroplasts. Secondary endosymbiosis. The diversity of chloroplasts, photosynthetic pigments, cell structure and forms of algae. The relationship between the form of algae and living conditions. The essence of sexual reproduction, benefits and costs of having sex. Alternation of generations. The diversity of sexual reproduction in algae. The diversity of green algae and their phylogenetic relationships. Common features of Charophyceae and terrestrial plants. Important landmarks in the evolution of land plants: lignin, sporopollenin and cutin. The origin of sporophyte of land plants. The early evolution of plants on land. The emergence of leaves. Bryophytes - the origin, structure and diversity. The evolution of stem. Sporangium and sporofyll. Heterospory. A systematic review of modern and fossil Lycopodiophyta and ferns. The ovule - origin, significance and evolution. Modern gymnosperms. The origin and early evolution of angiosperms, contemporary hypotheses about the origin of the flower. Evolutionary diversification of angiosperms. A systematic review of selected groups of mono-and dicotyledonous. Phylogenetic relationships among groups of fungi-like protists and fungi. Structure, chemistry and lifestyle of fungi-like protists and fungi. A systematic review of fungi.


1. Szweykowska A., Szweykowski J. 1993. Botanika. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN (both parts).

2. Niklas K.J. 1997. The evolutionary biology of plants. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and Londyn.

3. Judd W.S., Campbell C.S., Kellogg E.A., Stevens P.F., Donoghue M.J. 2002. Plant systematics, a phylogenetic approach. Sinauer, Sunderland (MA). Second edition.

Learning outcomes:

I. Knowledge: student

1) knows botanical terminology and basic principles of nomenclature, understands the meaning of the taxonomic position of an organism (K_W13 Bl1);

2) characterises known groups of algae, fungi, protists and plants with respect to the number of species, habitat, morphology and anatomy, and recognises representatives of these taxa (K_W05 Bl1, K_W06 Bl1, K_W07 Bl1);

3) describes phylogenetic relationships among those groups of organisms and characterises main ecological factors, which in the course of evolution shaped their biodiversity (K_W10 Bl1, K_W11 Bl1);

II. Abilities: student

4) knows basic techniques of light microscopy (K_U01 Bl1);

5) makes simple microscopic slides under the guidance of the tutor (K_U06 Bl1);

6) learns individually issues indicated by the tutor (K_U10 Bl1);

III. Social skills:

7) broadens his botanical interests (K_K01 Bl1);

8) feels a constant need to broaden and actualise his/her botanical knowledge (K_K04 Bl1);

9) knows and applies basic rules of safety in experimental work and known how to react in the case of emergency (K_K05 Bl1).

Assessment methods and assessment criteria:

Lab evaluation criteria: student should (i) not have been absent more than twice; (ii) receive a minimum of 60% of the highest score in the four written tests (72 of 120; 4x30 points). The final mark will be based on the sum of points in the four tests.

The course will be evaluated based on a written examination.

Classes in period "Winter semester 2023/24" (past)

Time span: 2023-10-01 - 2024-01-28
Selected timetable range:
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Type of class:
Classes, 60 hours more information
Lecture, 30 hours more information
Coordinators: Rafał Milanowski, Krzysztof Spalik
Group instructors: Maja Łukomska-Kowalczyk, Monika Mętrak, Rafał Milanowski, Paweł Pawlikowski, Julia Pawłowska, Katarzyna Roguz, Krzysztof Spalik, Małgorzata Stpiczyńska, Marta Wrzosek, Bożena Zakryś
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Examination: Course - Examination
Classes - Grading
Lecture - Examination
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