Psychological Aspects of Gaming and Virtual Reality Experience
|Kod przedmiotu:||2500-EN_F_64||Kod Erasmus / ISCED:||14.4 / (0313) Psychologia|
|Nazwa przedmiotu:||Psychological Aspects of Gaming and Virtual Reality Experience|
Cognitive Psychology basket
electives for 2 and 3 year
|Punkty ECTS i inne:||
zobacz reguły punktacji
(tylko po angielsku)
Main objectives of the course is to scrutinize the psychological factors of
gaming that shape our behavior, decision making, cognition and emotion
Why do we play the games? How do we play them? How do they affect
our cognitive and emotional functioning? To answer these questions we
need to enter the broad domain of ‘Game design psychology’ – a
multidisciplinary approach within the studies on new, digital media.
Within the series of classes we will structurally analyze the existing
literature on the psychological effects of gaming and ‘virtual reality
experience’ on our real life performance – and oppositely – how the
factors of reality shape the ‘game experience’.
(tylko po angielsku)
Nowadays everybody is playing some kind of video game, be it on a
console, computer, Facebook, or phone. Much of the medium’s success is
built on careful adherence to basic principles of psychology, which is
becoming even more important as games become more social and
Understanding the reciprocal dependencies of game features and
the psychological effects leads to a better design as well as getting more
out of a game as a player on his own terms. Satisfaction of certain
psychological needs (e.g., relatedness, autonomy, or mastery) can
certainly increase engagement and playtime in mobile games.
In this course we will also review the learning theories – its
beneficial and hindering influences on the game process development (as
B.F. Skinner’s insights into learned behaviors). We will also focus on
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi’s concept of psychological flow and a founding
that a person's skill and the difficulty of a task interact to result in
different cognitive and emotional states. We will consider how certain
game design satisfies or doesn’t satisfy the requirements for psychological
flow and how it could be changed. We will also talk about other concepts
as immersion, levels of emotional engagement and the ‘feeling of
presence’. Special attention will be given to the social aspects of gaming,
social cues of attention as well as the co-presence effect.
To provide a complete picture gaming techniques and its effects,
we will speak about multidisciplinary application as the ‘gamification of
musea’, ‘educational and therapeutic gamification’ (VR simulations),
motoric and cognitive training as well as the influence of persuasive
games. Emphasis of the course will lie evenly on the cognitive and
emotional psychology, however involved will be also issues from other
disciplines, as communication science, (cross) cultural psychology, cultural
philosophy and ethics. In addition to the recent articles on game design,
reach audio-visual material will be foreseen - frequently presented videoillustration
will be shown (or requested to see at home) to exemplify
theoretical topics treated in the literature.
(tylko po angielsku)
Class 1. Introduction to the topic of the course and to the theory of game
design. Described will be all courses’ topics. Organizational information;
scheduling the individual presentations; description of the final paper and
of the final evaluation.
Class 2. Why do people play games?
- Decision points
- Individual differences
Bers, M. U. (2010). Let the games begin: Civic playing in high tech consoles. Review of General
Psychology, 14, 147–153.
Dongseong Choi, D. and Kim, J. (2004). "Why People Continue to Play Online Games: In Search
of Critical Design Factors to Increase Customer Loyalty to Online Contents". CyberPsychology &
Behavior, 7(1): 11-24.
Barnett, J., & Coulson, M. (2010). Virtually real: A psychological perspective on massively
multiplayer online games. Review of General Psychology, 14, 167–179.
Class 3. Five domains of play vs. The Big 5 Personality Model
VandenBerghe, J. (2012) The 5 Domains of Play: Applying Psychology's Big 5 Motivation
Domains to Games; Ubisoft, GDConference.
Wang et al (2013) Relating Five Factor Personality Traits to Video Game
Preference, HCITR (http://hcil2.cs.umd.edu/trs/2013-08/2013-08.pdf)
Leng, C. (2008). Personality differences between online game players and nonplayers in a
student sample. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11(2), 232-234.
Class 4. Motivation of players & hierarchy of needs
Olson, C. K. (2010). Children’s motivations for video game play in the context of normal
development. Review of General Psychology, 14, 180–187.
Przybylski, A. K., Rigby, C. S., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). A motivational model of video game
engagement. Review of General Psychology, 14, 154–166.
Class 5. Emotional engagement
Ravaja, N., Saari, T., Laarni, J., Kallinen, K., Salminen, M., olopainen , . arvinen, A. (2005).
The Psychophysiology of Video Gaming: Phasic Emotional Responses to Game Events.
International DIGRA Conference.
Cunningham, S., Grout, V., & Picking, R. (2010). Emotion, content, and context in sound and
music. In M. Grimshaw (Ed.), Game sound technology and player interaction: Concepts and
developments, (pp. 235–263).
Freeman, D. (2004). Creating emotion in games: The craft and art of emotioneering™.
Computers in Entertainment (CIE), 2(3), article 15.
Shinkle, E. (2008). Video games, emotion and the six senses. Media, Culture, and Society, 30,
Class 6. Flow state
Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience (2008), by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, published by
Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
Agarwal, R., & Karahanna, E. (2000). Time flies when you’re having fun: Cognitive Absorption
and beliefs about information technology usage. MIS Quarterly, 24(4), 665–694.
Holt, R. Examining Video Game Immersion as a Flow State. B.A. Thesis, Department of
Psychology, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada, 2000.
Sweetser, P. and Wyeth, P. GameFlow: A model for evaluating player enjoyment in games.
Computers in Entertainment 3, 3 (July 2005).
Sweetser, P., & Wyeth, P. (2005). GameFlow: A model for evaluating player enjoyment in
games. Computers in Entertainment (CIE), 3(3), article 3.
Takatalo, ., äkkinen, ., Kaistinen, ., Nyman, G. (2010). Presence, involvement, and flow in
digital games. In R. Bernhaupt (Ed.), Evaluating user experience in games (pp. 23-46). London:
Class 7. Levels of interaction
Thalmann, D. "The Role of Virtual Humans in Virtual Environment Technology and Interfaces."
In R. Earnshaw, R. Guejd, A. van Dam, and J. Vince, eds. Frontiers of Human-Centred
Computing, Online Communities and Virtual Environments, Springer-Verlag, London, 2001, 27-
Churchill, E. F., Snowdon, D. N., and Munro, A. J. "Collaborative Virtual Environments - Digital
Places and Spaces for Interaction." Computer Supported Cooperative Work, D. Diaper and C.
Sanger, eds. Springer-Verlag, London, 2001, pp. 316.
Cassell, J. "Embodied conversational interface agents." Communications of the ACM, 43.4
(2000), 70 - 78.
Bowman, D. A. and Hodges, L. F. "Formalizing the Design, Evaluation, and Application of
Interaction Techniques for Immersive Virtual Environments." Journal of Visual Languages and
Computing, 10.1 (1999), 37-53.
Class 8. Immersion
- Measurements of “immersion”
Jennett, C, Cox, AL, Cairns, P, Dhoparee, S, Epps, A, Tijs, T & Walton, A 2008, 'Measuring and
defining the experience of immersion in games' International journal of human-Computer
studies, vol 66, no. 9, pp. 641-661.
Norman, K. (2010). Development of instruments to measure immerseability of individuals and
immersiveness of video games. Tech. Rep. http://lap.umd.edu/LAP/Papers/Tech_Report
Cairns, P., Cox, A., Dhoparee, S., Hong, R. & Jennett, C. (under review). Investigating
Immersion: transferring the positive experience of playing games.
Class 9. Feeling of presence
- Measuring the “feeling of presence”
Wirth, W., hartmann, T., Bocking, S., Vorderer, P., Klimmt, C., Holger, S., Saari, T., Laarni, J.,
Ravaja, N., Gouveia, F., Biocca, F., Sacau, A. Jancke, L., Baumgartner, T., & Jancke, P. (2007). A
Process Model for the Formation of Spatial Presence Experiences. Media Psychology, 9, 493-
Heeter, C. & Allbritton, M. (2015). Playing with Presence: How meditation can increase the
experience of embodied presence in a virtual world. In proceedings of the Foundations of
Digital Games conference . Asilomar, CA
Slater, M., & Steed, A., (2000). A Virtual Presence Counter. ztextitPresence, 9(5), 413–434
Witmer, B., G., & Singer, M.J. (1998). Measuring presence in virtual environments: A presence
questionnaire. Presence, Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7(3), 225–240.
Class 10. Gaming application in health care
- Games & health and well being
- Therapeutic use of game design and VR
- Gaming as an aid platform or depression, anxiety and
Ceranoglu, T. A. (2010). Video games in psychotherapy. Review of General Psychology, 14,
Durkin, K. (2010). Video games and young people with developmental disorders. Review of
General Psychology, 14, 122–140.
Kato, P. M. (2010). Video games in health care: Closing the gap. Review of General Psychology,
Gross, E. F., Juvonen, J. and Gable, S.L. (2002). Internet Use and Well-Being in Adolescents.
Journal of Social Issues. Accessed June 23, 2009.
Morahan-Martin, J. (1999) The Relationship Between Loneliness and Internet Use and Abuse.
Cyber Psychology and Behavior 2: 431-440.
Petry, N. (2006). Internet gambling: an emerging concern in family practice medicine? Family
Practice, 23(4): 421-426.
Franceschini, Sandro, Simone Gori, Milena Ruffino, Simona Viola, Massimo Molteni, and
Andrea Facoetti. 2013. “Action Video Games Make Dyslexic Children Read Better.” Current
Torres, Ana Carla Seabra. 2011. “Cognitive Effects of Video Games on Old People.”
International Journal on Disability and Human Development 10:55–58.
|Efekty uczenia się:||
(tylko po angielsku)
Understanding of the fundamental psychological mechanisms behind the
gaming behavior: motivational emotional factors, its beneficial effects
(learning and training) as well as possible negative effects of gaming.
Students will also get to know varied game design approaches –
dependently on the designers’ strategy concerning the gamers’ expected
behavior, attitude and experienced emotions. Students will also
demonstrate skills in identifying specific game design elements to create
different levels of interaction, immersion and its potential use for HCI
|Metody i kryteria oceniania:||
(tylko po angielsku)
24 hours – attendance
24 hours – reading literature and watching course videos
3 hours – preparing class discussions/exercises
7 hours – preparing a presentation
10 hours – final paper
There will be a number of points that are required to be obtained in
order to pass this class. The quantity of points determines the
Students will be obliged to fulfill two practical tasks. Each task
will be separately evaluated:
A PowerPoint presentation based on the in-class practices as
well as the chosen literature
Final paper – analysis of game design casus
Presentation: There will be one obligatory presentation (15-20
minutes). Students will present their practical, on-going exercises
that they performed in the class. Their task will be also to match
appropriate literature and apply this theoretical background to
their own practice, observations and research. Further details will
be provided by the instructor at the beginning of the course. The
presentation will be given by students individually or in groups
(dependently on the number of students) during the second part of
the course. The maximum score for the presentation is 20 points.
Final Paper: At the end of the course students will be asked to write
A final paper – an analysis of a ‘game design status’. It will be based
on material and information provided by the instructor during the
first session. The maximum score for this task is 30 points.
49 – 50 points = 5!
46 – 48 points = 5
41 – 45 points = 4,5
36 – 40 points = 4
31 – 35 points = 3,5
26 – 30 points = 3
25 or less = failed
Students will be allowed to be absent from two sessions (1 session
= 1,5 academic hour). In case of missing a bigger amount of sessions
(e.g., because of illness), students will be asked to complete
additional work in order to compensate missed theory and practice.
No more than 8 hours of class can be missed however, irrespective
Właścicielem praw autorskich jest Uniwersytet Warszawski.